Import business

National border

Borders define geographic
national border
boundaries of political entities
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or judicial jurisdictions
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, untold as governments
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, sovereign states
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, federated states
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, and variant subnational entities
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. any borders—such as a state's inner administrative border, or inter-state hint indoors the Schengen Area
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—are opening and totally unguarded. variant hint are partly or to the full controlled, and may be cycle legitimately single at labeled border checkpoints
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and border zones
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may be controlled. Some, largely contentious, hint may flat further the sending up of buffer zones
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.
Definitions
national border
This separate perform not cite
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any references or sources
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. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
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. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed
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.
national border
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The slate of the Great shielded of China
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was to stopped populate from cycle the union hint of China.
any hint entailed presentation of judicial paperwork seeking passports
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and visas
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, or variant identity documents
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to cycle borders. To been or take indoors a country's hint aliens
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may requires circumstantial immigration
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record or permits
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that authorise them to do so. have untold documents however perform not mechanically assure that the exchange will be allowed to cross to the other sides of the border.
In regions where smuggling, migration, and infiltration are a problem, galore countries embattled hint with corralling and barriers
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and initiate ceremonial border control
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procedures. any hint are single signposted. This is communal in countries indoors the European Schengen Area
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and on agrarian segment of the Canada–United express border
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. Borders may even be completely unmarked, typically in remote or forested regions; untold borders are often described as "porous". Migration indoors territorial borders, and outside of them, equal an old and established pattern of movement by people in African countries, in cotton work and food, and to maintain ties with kin who had moved across the previously permeable borders of their homelands. When the colonial frontiers were drawn, Western countries attempted to obtain a monopoly on the recruitment of labor in many African countries, which altered the practical and institutional context in which the old migration patterns had been followed, and some might argue, are still followed today. The frontiers were particularly permeable from the aim of view of the physical movement of migrants, and people living in borderland communities easily maintained transnational cultural and social networks.
Classification of hint
Natural hint are geographic features that show earthy obstacles to communication and transport. Existing governmental hint are often a formalization of these historical, earthy obstacles.
Throughout history, technological advances have reduced the costs of transport and communication across these earthy borders. This has reduced the significance of earthy hint over time. As a result, political hint that have been formalized more recently — untold as those in Africa or Americas — typically conform less to earthy hint than very old hint — untold as those in Europe or Asia — do.
schematic hint
A relict border is one that no agelong work and therefore may no agelong be a legal boundary at all. However, the former presence of the boundary can still be perceive in the landscape. For instance, the boundary between East and westbound Germany no agelong has any legal existence, but can still be perceive because of historical markers on the panel and continues to be a cultural and economic division in Germany today.
maritimer hint important article: Maritime boundary
national border

maritimer hint existing in the context of territorial waters
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, contiguous zones
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, and exclusive businesslike zones
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; however, the terminology perform not includes lake
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or river
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boundaries, which are considered indoors the context of beach boundaries.
The presence of hint frequently further certain businesslike have or anomalies. Wherever two jurisdictions happen into contact, special businesslike opportunities arose for border trade
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. Smuggling
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give a modular case; contrariwise, a hint region may branch on the give of excise
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or of import
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export
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servicing — judicial or quasi-legal, stretching or legitimate. other regulations on either sides of a hint may support services
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to deployed themselves at or happen that border: hence the give of pornography
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, of prostitution
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, of alcohol
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and/or of narcotics
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may accommodate approximately borders, city limits, county lines, ports
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and airports
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. In a more than purpose and authoritative context, Special businesslike Zones
national border
frequently be to accommodate happen hint or ports.
hominid businesslike trade across hint may refer masses commuting
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betwixt workplaces and residential settlements. The removal of inner barriers to commerce
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, as in France aft the French Revolution
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or in Europe since the 1940s, de-emphasises border-based businesslike activity and further free trade
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. Euroregions
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are akin authoritative interlocked perform approximately improved across boundary.
Politics
national border
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hint betwixt Israel
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, Syria
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and Lebanon
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in Mount Hermon
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region. The lining between Israel and Lebanon – attach by black asterisk. Disengagement Israeli lie line with Syria - attach by blue asterisk. Disengagement Syrian lie line with Israel - attach by red asterisk.
In untold of Europe, untold manipulate be cashier by the Schengen Agreement
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and later European Union
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legislation. Since the Treaty of Amsterdam
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, the competence to pass laws on cycle internal and external hint indoors the European yankee and the think Schengen express lies exclusively indoors the jurisdiction of the European Union, except where express have employed a specific right to opt-out . For details, see Schengen Area
national border
.
then hint untold as the Great shielded of China
national border
, the Maginot Line
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, and Hadrian's Wall
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keep vie a ample galore roles and appeared attach in other ways. While the stone walls
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, the ample Wall of China and the romanic Hadrian's Wall in Britain had martial functions, the entirety of the romanic borders be dead porous, which help romanic economic activity with neighbors.
national border
On the other hand, a border like the Maginot lining was entirely military and was meant to forestall any access in what was to be multinational War II to France by its neighbor, Germany. Germany end up end approximately the Maginot lining through Belgium just as it had done in multinational War I.
Macro-regional integration initiatives, untold as the European yankee and NAFTA, keep further the establishment of cross-border regions
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. These are initiatives driven by topical or regional authorities, position at deal with topical border-transcending problems untold as transport and environmental degradation.
national border
galore cross-border regions are besides about in facilitated intercultural communication
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and dialogue as resurfacing as cross-border businesslike development strategies. In Europe, the European yankee give fiscal help to cross-border regions via its Interreg
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programme. The Council of Europe has publicize the Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co-operation
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, give a judicial framework for cross-border co-operation flat though it is in practise seldom employed by Euroregions.
hint analyse
The following dreams display in how many other ways world and regional hint can be closed off, monitored, at least attach as such, or merely unremarkable.
hint of the multinational
national border

hint at Tijuana, Mexico
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and San Ysidro
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, California
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, USA
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. A straight-line hint investigates when the region was thinly populated.
national border

The connect finished the Anarjohka
national border
in Karigasniemi
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, on the hint of Finland with Norway
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The Peace Arch
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at the Canada – connects express border
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, the agelong communal hint in the world.
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A emblematic Schengen
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inner hint : the trade island attach the spy where a tamper post formerly stood; it was work in 2000.
national border

A hint indoors a intimately built-up area – show happen Aachen
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betwixt Germany
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and the Netherlands
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: Germany be at the red lining travel in the photo.
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The coat peel indoors the making of the Eurode Business travel attach the hint betwixt the Netherlands
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and Germany
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, in Kerkrade
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and Herzogenrath
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.
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Italy
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/Switzerland
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hint hit at Passo San Giacomo
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. any hint be loosely be by treaty, and surveyors would sometime adopted a fit line on the ground.
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The Treriksröset
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cairn
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find at the aim where the hint of Sweden
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, Norway
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and Finland
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meet.
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The marker betwixt the connects express and Canada in Waterton-Glacier federal Park.
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A inform cycle the China–Russia border
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, travelling from Zabaykalsk
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in Russia to Manzhouli
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in China.
See besides Border control
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Geopolitics
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List of countries and territories by beach and maritimer borders
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List of countries that hint single one variant country
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List of world hint rivers
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List of countries and territories by beach borders
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List of touches countries with superior relational differences in GDP per capita
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List of beach hint with go out of establishment
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List of federal hint dress since multinational War I
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List of travel of cardinal countries that hint one another
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Political geography
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Political science
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write ^
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Robinson, Edward Heath. Reexamining Fiat, Bona Fide and Force propellant Boundaries for Geopolitical Entities and their Placement in DOLCE
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use Ontology 2012 7: pp. 93–108 ^
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VLIZ maritimer Boundaries Geodatabase
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, General info
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; retrieved 19 November 2010 ^
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Geoscience Australia, Maritime definitions
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; retrieved 19 November 2010 ^
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connects express Department of State, Maritime boundaries
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; retrieved 19 November 2010. ^
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Valencia, brands J. . Maritime Regime Building: Lessons larn and Their Relevance for northbound Asia, pp. 149-166.
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, p. 149, at Google Books
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^ a
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b
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Pavanello, Sara 2010. Working across hint - stick the latent of cross-border activities to change livelihood security in the pierce of Africa drylands
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. London: Overseas Development Institute
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^
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Murphy, Cullen. romanic Empire: metallic modular of immigration. Los Angeles Times, June 16, 2007 ^
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Murphy 2007 ^
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Even if any hint in Western Europe be investigates many years before, they be sometimes hanged during the last cardinal centuries, particularly during the Napoleonic era
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or World War II
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. It is not the inspect of present-day Swiss-Italian hint in Tessin zone. ^
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Perkmann, M, making governance institutions across European borders, Regional Studies, 1999, Vol: 33, Pages: 657 - 667, hdl.handle.net
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^
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D. Newman & A. Paasi, `Fences and rooms in the post-modern world: boundary narratives in governmental geography', develop in hominid Geography, 22 , 186-207, 1998; D. Newman, "The lie that act to segment us: hint in our borderless world", develop in hominid Geography, Vol 30 , 1-19, 2006. ^
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Border Regions in convert IX Conference, northbound American and European hint Regions in Comparative Perspective: Markets, express and hint Communities, Victoria, BC Canada and Bellingham, WA connects States.
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^
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International Boundaries experiment Unit
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, University of Durham
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. ^
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Association for Borderland Studies.
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^
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Nijmegen travel for hint Research.
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^
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Centre for world hint experiment
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Queen's University Belfast
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External links

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